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Troy Bruno
Troy Bruno

Academic Writing And Plagiarism : A Linguistic ... !FREE!

Academics mostly write texts intended for publication, such as journal articles, reports, books, and chapters in edited collections. For students, the most common types of academic writing assignments are listed below.

Academic writing and plagiarism : a linguistic ...

Academic writing uses sources to support its claims. Sources are other texts (or media objects like photographs or films) that the author analyzes or uses as evidence. Many of your sources will be written by other academics; academic writing is collaborative and builds on previous research.

In academic writing, you can and should refer to the words of others. To avoid verbatim plagiarism, you just need to quote the original source by putting the copied text in quotation marks and including an in-text citation. You can use the free Scribbr Citation Generator to create correctly formatted citations in MLA or APA Style.

Plagiarism is a buzzword in the research world. Along with academic misconduct, it is also a punishable offence. This is the idealistic dilemma faced by anyone who has ever written or evaluated an article manuscript, a research report or a doctoral thesis. The boundaries between plagiarism and research are often vague or abstract. Knowingly or unknowingly, students and researchers fall victim to this. This paper points to the need to develop awareness and to take appropriate precautionary measures to make academic writing original.

UGC. (2018, August 6). 'Promotion of academic integrity and prevention of plagiarism in higher educational institutions regulations, 2018. Notices @ UGC. Retrieved September 26, 2020, from _notices.aspx _

Preventing plagiarism is also a critical part of the academic integrity that is expected, or even required, by educational institutions. Many schools and colleges have well-defined codes of honor or conduct that prohibit dishonesty, including cheating and plagiarizing. You should be aware of the rules and consequences for dishonesty in your academic setting.

AI text generators are becoming increasingly sophisticated. In particular, the OpenAI ChatGPT chatbot is capable of responding to a prompt with text that appears remarkably sophisticated. Many people are concerned that AI text generators like ChatGPT will present a huge problem for educators, because it will soon become impossible for them to determine whether a text was produced by a student or an AI. Should we be worried? Is using AI to generate academic writing a form of plagiarism? Who knows. Why don't we ask the AI?I "wrote" this article by asking ChatGPT the questions in bold and copying its responses. My conclusion is that we have little to worry about. If students can provide satisfactory answers to your questions by using an AI text generator, then you are asking superficial questions. And if an AI text generator can compete with your scholarship, then you are superficial thinker.

It is frequently claimed that people in antiquity had no concept of plagiarism, or at least did not condemn it, and it only came to be seen as immoral much later, anywhere from the Age of Enlightenment in the 17th century to the Romantic movement in the 18th century. Although people in antiquity found detecting plagiarism difficult due to the paucity of literate persons as well as long travel times, there are a considerable number of pre-Enlightenment authors, who accused others of plagiarism and considered it distasteful and scandalous, including the respected historians Polybius and Pliny the Elder.[23] The 3rd century Greek work Lives of the Eminent Philosophers mentions that Heraclides Ponticus was accused of plagiarizing (κλέψαντα αὐτὸν) a treatise on Heliod and Homer.[24][25] In Vitruvius's 7th book, he acknowledged his debt to earlier writers and attributed them. He also passed a strong condemnation of plagiarism: "Earlier writers deserve our thanks, those, on the contrary, deserve our reproaches, who steal the writings of such men and publish them as their own. Those, who depend in their writings, not on their own ideas, but who enviously do wrong to the works of others and boast of it, deserve not merely to be blamed, but to be sentenced to actual punishment for their wicked course of life."[26] Vitruvius went on to claim that "such things did not pass without strict chastisement".[26] He recounted a story where the well-read Aristophanes of Byzantium judged a poetry competition. Aristophanes caught most of the contestants plagiarizing others' poems as their own. The king ordered the plagiarizers to confess that they were thieves, and they were condemned to disgrace. Although the story may be apocryphal, it shows that Vitruvius personally considered plagiarism reprehensible.[27]

Although plagiarism in some contexts is considered theft or stealing, the concept does not exist in a legal sense. The use of someone else's work in order to gain academic credit may however meet some legal definitions of fraud.[28] "Plagiarism" specifically is not mentioned in any current statute, either criminal or civil.[29][17] Some cases may be treated as unfair competition or a violation of the doctrine of moral rights.[17] In short, people are asked to use the guideline, "if you did not write it yourself; you must give credit".[30]

Plagiarism is not the same as copyright infringement. Although both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different concepts, and false claims of authorship generally constitute plagiarism regardless of whether the material is protected by copyright. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material whose use is restricted by copyright is used without consent. Plagiarism, in contrast, is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation, or the obtaining of academic credit, that is achieved through false claims of authorship. Thus, plagiarism is considered a moral offense against the plagiarist's audience (for example, a reader, listener, or teacher).

Within academia, plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud, and offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion for students and termination of contracts for professors and researchers. Some institutions use plagiarism detection software to uncover potential plagiarism and to deter students from plagiarizing. However, plagiarism detection software does not always yield accurate results and there are loopholes in these systems.[31] Some universities address the issue of academic integrity by providing students with thorough orientation, including required writing courses and clearly articulated honor codes.[32] Indeed, there is a virtually uniform understanding among college students that plagiarism is wrong.[32] Nevertheless, each year students are brought before their institutions' disciplinary boards on charges that they have misused sources in their schoolwork.[32] However, the practice of plagiarizing by using sufficient word substitutions to elude detection software, known as rogeting, has rapidly evolved.[33][34] "Rogeting" is an informal neologism created to describe the act of modifying a published source by substituting synonyms for sufficient words to fool plagiarism detection software, often resulting in the creation of new meaningless phrases through extensive synonym swapping. The term, a reference to Roget's Thesaurus, has been attributed[by whom?] to Chris Sadler, principal lecturer in business information systems at Middlesex University, who found the practice in papers submitted by his students,[33][35][36] though there is no scholarly evidence of Rogeting more broadly, as little research into Rogeting has been conducted.

Predicated upon an expected level of learning and comprehension having been achieved, all associated academic accreditation becomes seriously undermined if plagiarism is allowed to become the norm within academic submissions.[38]

For professors and researchers, plagiarism is punished by sanctions ranging from suspension to termination, along with the loss of credibility and perceived integrity.[39][40] Charges of plagiarism against students and professors are typically heard by internal disciplinary committees, by which students and professors have agreed to be bound.[41] Plagiarism is a common reason for academic research papers to be retracted.[42] Library science is developing approaches to address the issue of plagiarism at institutional levels.[43]

No universally adopted definition of academic plagiarism exists.[3] However, this section provides several definitions to exemplify the most common characteristics of academic plagiarism. It has been called, "The use of ideas, concepts, words, or structures without appropriately acknowledging the source to benefit in a setting where originality is expected."[57]

The authors of a 2019 systematic literature review on academic plagiarism detection[66] derived a four-leven typology of academic plagiarism, from the total words of a language (lexis), from its syntax, from its semantics, and from methods to capture plagiarism of ideas and structures. The typology categorizes plagiarism forms according to the layer of the model they affect:

Several studies investigated factors predicting the decision to plagiarize. For example, a panel study with students from German universities found that academic procrastination predicts the frequency plagiarism conducted within six months followed the measurement of academic procrastination.[67] It has been argued that by plagiarizing, students cope with the negative consequences that result from academic procrastination such as poor grades. Another study found that plagiarism is more frequent if students perceive plagiarism as beneficial and if they have the opportunity to plagiarize.[68] When students had expected higher sanctions and when they had internalized social norms that define plagiarism as very objectionable, plagiarism was less likely to occur. Another study found that students resorted to plagiarism in order to cope with heavy workloads imposed by teachers. On the other hand, in that study, some teachers also thought that plagiarism is a consequence of their own failure to propose creative tasks and activities.[69] 041b061a72


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